Thursday, April 1, 2010

Disaster Management Class 9 project - Managing Ourselves - role of students

Acknowledgement

I__________, would like to thank my social studies teacher, Mr. Subhash sir, who always helped me and gave me suggestions and took valuable efforts to make this project a great success.

I would also like to thank my project partners; Abhishek Laddha, Janel Bharwada, Aditya Jindal, Meet Agrawal, etc. who always helped me and were always there for me when I had some doubt in my mind or didn’t get a piece of information of some topic.

I would also like to thank my friends and my family who helped me a lot and gave me some tips and various suggestions for the given project. I would like to give a valuable thanks to my mother and sister, who helped me to find information from books and browse the internet and was a helpful hand in making this project a valuable success. 








    Content

Topic
Pg. no.


Introduction

Research done by the government of India on Droughts

What is Drought?

Droughts in India

Types of droughts

Drought analysis of the year 2009

A plan for the role of students when an earthquake takes place.

Conclusion

Bibliography









  Introduction

# Disasters and their main types

Any natural or man made event which causes widespread human loss or destruction of property is known as a disaster. There are two types of disasters:
1.      Natural disasters: Any loss of property that occurs due to natural calamities is known as a natural disaster. A natural disaster can also be defined as the effect of a natural hazard (e.g. flood,(tornado) volcano eruption, earthquake, or landslide) that affects the environment, and leads to financial, environmental and/or human losses Man has no part in the occurrence of natural disasters but it is he who suffers the most when any disaster takes place. Some of the main natural disasters are earthquakes, landslides, cyclones, tsunamis, droughts, etc.
2.    Man–made disasters: Some disasters occurs due to the negligence or bad intentions of man, as such this type of disasters are known as man-made disasters. Rail, road and air accidents, fires, terrorist attacks, building collapse, epidemics, electrocution, anthrax letter bombs, chemical and industrial accidents, gas leakages and tradergies,etc. are some examples of man-made disasters.



My area is vulnerable to road traffic accidents, earthquakes and droughts. In my area, many different areas related to chemical industrial waste are posing great threats to the society. As, my area lies under semi-arid region, it is prone to drought. A research done by the Indian government in the year 2009 shows that 172 districts of India are drought prone out of which one of them is ours. Even our area is prone to earthquakes. Latur, about 150 kms from  our area witnessed a devastating earthquake in the year 1993.Its tremors were felt in our area too .That was really devastating and destructive. Also, our school is near to the MIDC area and also opposite to the waste
Disposal areas of the city and a water steram just for name sake as it seems to be a gutter with many waste disposal items has creates great chances of spreading biological disasters like spreading many diseases. Another important disaster which takes place very often in our region is road traffic accident. In our region we witness many road accidents.
One recent one just took place yesterday detailing that a Tata Sumo hit an autorikshaw in one of the most thickly populated region of our area and the autorikshaw driver was like in a half dead condition.
It was really destructive.

One of the major disaster which takes place in our area is drought.
It has a major impact on the society of our region, especially the poor people have to sum up with a huge number of difficulties and problems.
The farmers are especially the most affected people. A recent research done by the government of India shows that our district, Jalna is drought prone as declared on September 30.

The research done by the government of India is displayed on the next page:


                                                                                                     



Now let us discuss Drought in detail:

What is a drought?

A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply. Generally, this occurs when a region receives consistently below average precipitation. It can have a substantial impact on the ecosystem and agriculture of the affected region. Although droughts can persist for several years, even a short, intense drought can cause significant damage[1] and harm the docaleconomy.[2] This global phenomenon has a widespread impact on agriculture. The United Nations estimates that an area of fertile soil the size of Ukraine is lost every year because of drought, deforestation, and climate instability.

In my region, a person named Viajyanna Borade of krishi vigyan Kendra
Solved many aspects of the drought problems in our district. He solved:
1)     Water conservation through the indo – german project,  “pani adva pani jirva or stop water and recharge aquifers”, a method started in the Kadvanchi area of our region.
2)    Tree Plantation which increased the amount of rains in our region and also prevented soil erosion.
3)    Increasing groundwater table level by planting trees, which indirectly caused rains.

Droughts in India
Drought and floods in India are a perennial phenomenon, recurring with regular consistency every few years.  Scientists had warned about the current drought situation that has now affected more than 50 million people and herds of livestock have died. 

True these are natural disasters, yet it is also known that man has the capability to conquer and tame nature. The political system or government's ideology has a major role to play in these issues. 
India is rich with water resources with some of the great rivers in the world.  The earlier Indian rulers during the Mughal                                                                                            regime or the British Raj did not pay any attention to conserve the trillions of cubic meters of water of the great Indian rivers that simply get emptied into the ocean. Water conservation is possible by building dams, joining the rivers, building canals and letting the flow circulate within the country.
In the post independence India too, the Governments have miserably failed in handling the water resources. Resultantly, even in 21st century, India as a whole suffers from acute water problems. The politicians battle out the issues of "Water Sharing" within states without any concrete results and the social activists are busy doing "Dharna" and "Satyagrah". Yet the plight of the common man, particularly the women continues to worsen. Drought in India has resulted in tens of millions of deaths over the course of the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries. Indian agriculture is heavily dependent on the climate of India: a favorable southwest summer monsoon is critical in securing water for irrigating Indian crops. In some parts of India, the failure of the monsoons result in water shortages, resulting in below-average crop yields. This is particularly true of major drought-prone regions such as southern and eastern Maharashtra, northern Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, Gujarat, and Rajasthan.
 Specially Marathwada in Maharashtra is a semi arid region prone to drought.

In the past, droughts have periodically led to major Indian famines, including the Bengal famine of 1770, in which up to one third of the population in affected areas died; the 1876–1877 famine, in which over five million people died; and the 1899 famine, in which over 4.5 million died.



Types of Droughts


Droughts can be of three kinds:-
(i) Meteorological drought: This happens when the actual rainfall in an area is significantly less than the climatological mean of that area. The country as a whole may have a normal monsoon, but different meteorological districts and sub-divisions can have below normal rainfall. The rainfall categories for smaller areas are defined by their deviation from a meteorological area's normal rainfall -
Excess: 20 per cent or more above normal
Normal: 19 per cent above normal - 19 per cent below normal
Deficient: 20 per cent below normal - 59 per cent below normal
Scanty: 60 per cent or more below normal
(ii) Hydrological drought: A marked depletion of surface water causing very low stream flow and drying of lakes, rivers and reservoirs
(iii) Agricultural drought: Inadequate soil moisture resulting in acute crop stress and fall in agricultural productivity.


Drought analysis of the year 2009

States Affected by Drought


Now here is a plan for the role of students when a earthquake takes place

The class teachers are the very soul of the school and competent to divide the children in to different groups and assign them hazards specific disaster management plan. But, however, the following groups can be best formed:-
·        Group one – Warning Dissemination: - this group can take the duty of warning people in case of disasters.
·        Group Two – Evacuation, Search and Rescue: - this group can take duty of evacuation, search and rescue in case of disasters.
·        Group three- Emergencies and First Aid – this group can take the duty of any emergencies or first air against disasters.
·        Group Four – Awareness Generation: - this group can take the duty of awareness generation by telling the people how they should co-operate in rendering any help.
·        Group Five - Mitigation – This group can help the affected people involved in a disaster.

How can the students themselves help in Preparing a School Management plan for various Hazards like fire, floods, cyclones etc.

In case of any fire or any hazards like earthquake, flood, cyclone etc. it is the student who suffer the most so they should be trained to help themselves in all the activities concerning the safety of school in many ways:-

1.    The students, with the help of teachers, can plan a School Disaster Management Committee.
2.    this committee can be divided into different groups like of those:-
                               I.      Warning Dissemination
                            II.      Evacuation Search and Rescue
                         III.      Emergency First Aid
                        IV.      Awareness Generation
                           V.      Mitigation
3.    The students should study their school building carefully and its surroundings and make a detailed plan for disaster preparedness.
4.    The students should practice the different drills – like the fire drill, the flood drill, the cyclone drill and the earthquake drill. Without any panic they should go on practicing drill after drill till they are able to evacuate the school building in the least possible time.
5.    Last but not the least the students should prepare the emergency list of officers or authorities along with the names and telephone numbers and display them on school board. This emergency list can include the following:-

1)    Local Civil Defense Warden / Instructor.
2)    Nearest Hospital, Primary Health Centre and Clinic In charge Doctor.
3)    Nearest Police Station House Police In charge.
4)    Nearest Fire Station Superintendent.
5)    District Magistrate or Municipal Commissioner.










Bibliography
Web sources:-
1) www.wikipedia.org
4) www.wiki.answers.com

Book sources:-
1) S.S. evergreen guide
2) S.S. togetherwith guide
3) Class 9 Disaster Management Textbook






Conclusion

1) Before some days, I was wondering how to control yourself and evacuate when a disaster suddenly strikes.
2)Now, after doing this project, there is actually no such doubt in my mind about the situation when a disaster strikes.
3) I would like to suggest that the government should take up initiavites for evacuation plans or train individuals to deal when a disaster takes place.
4)Also, for managing droughts, the government should start programs like “pani adva pani jirva or stop water and recharge aquifers” in most of the drought prone regions of our country to  reduce the risk  of the deaths due to droughts.

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